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spacer Book: Technics & Civilization by Lewis Mumford spacer  

Narrative: Technics and Civilizatoin by Lewis Mumford, 528 pages paperback, published by University Of Chicago Press; Reprint edition (October 30, 2010) ISBN-10: 0226550273 ISBN-13: 978-0226550275. Technics and Civilization was typeset and the mechanical copy of the manuscript was sent to a printer. The printer then photographed the pages to produce page negatives. Next, negatives were stripped by hand onto large flat sheets known as 'goldenrods,' and the goldenrods were exposed with ultraviolet light. This resulted in 'blueprints," a positive reproduction of the book that is then checked for accuracy.

Cold-set inks are set simply by absorption into non-coated stocks and are generally used for books but are also found in insert printing and are the most economical option. Energy-curable inks are the highest-quality offset litho inks and are set by application of light energy. They require specialized equipment such as inter-station curing lamps, and are usually the most expensive type of offset litho ink.

The paper was made from pulp obtained by chemical means, known as kraft pulping. Chips of wood were placed in a large, sealed container known as a digester. The digester contained a strongly alkaline solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide. The mixture was heated to 320-356° F at a pressure of about 116 pounds per square inch. After each bleach mixture, the pulp is washed with an alkaline solution that removes the treated lignin. Fillers are added to the pulp. Other chemicals often added to pulp include starches or gums. Rosin (a substance derived from pine trees) and alum (aluminum sulfate) are often added as sizers, making the paper less absorbent. Pulp is added to water to form slurry . The slurry is pumped onto a moving mesh screen made up of very fine wires of metal or plastic. Water drains, forming a sheet of wet material. The sheet is moved on a series of belst made of felt containing wool, cotton, and synthetic fibers. The dried sheets move between rollers known as calendars to make it smooth.

After the typeset version of the book was reviewed and necessary changes made, it was printed and bound with the cover, resulting in a finished book. The subsequent steps are typically done by specialized vendors. Book binding involved sewing the signatures together, gluing the spine, and inserting lining and trimming the edges. Finally the book is  enclosed in a cover.

I purchased this book used through Amazon.com during the winter of 2011 for 13.94 + 3.99, and have had it in Manhattan, and moved it to Brooklyn. I purchased it because I have learned from Mumford's other books and was researching ideas and inventions around perpetual motion and "free energy."

  mary mattingly