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spacer Stamped and Addressed Envelope spacer  


Rolls of paper, typically weighing 220 lb are either cut before they enter the automated machine that makes the envelopes, or fed directly into the machine from the roll. Once cut, the sheets are stacked and cut into blanks. A blank has the shape of an envelope with its flaps opened and laid flat. Shaped like diamonds and cut from the sheets in such a way as to minimize waste. The glue applied to the flap that is sealed by the consumer is usually a gum. A typical natural gum is gum arabic, derived from a substance produced by the acacia tree. Synthetic gums are often derived from dextrans, which are produced by the fermentation of sugar. The glue that holds the rest of the envelope must be stronger and more permanent. This glue is often derived from starches, which are obtained from corn, wheat, potatoes, rice, and other plants. The completed envelopes are filled in cardboard boxes and shipped to retailers.

Sticker postage stamps, ink-based stamps, and airmail stickers still need to be accounted for here. Text was typed on a typewriter and pencil drawn. Graphite combined with clay and wax or other chemicals make up the center of the pencil. The wood used to manufacture pencils must be able to withstand repeated sharpening and cut easily without splintering. Most pencils are made from California cedar. Some pencils have erasers, which are held on with a ferrule, a metal case that is either glued or held on with metal prongs. The erasers themselves consist of pumice and rubber.